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                                    贺兰砚

                                          发布日期:2018-03-12       保护视力色:          字体颜色: 【      绿】         恢复默认

                                     

                                      贺兰砚取材于宁夏“五宝”之首贺兰石,贺兰石产自贺兰山,故砚以山石为名,称贺兰砚。贺兰石形成于13亿年前的震旦纪中前期,是含多种微量元素的粉砂质粘板岩,产于海拔2600多米的贺兰山上,摩氏硬度一般为3~4度,其色彩鲜明,质地均匀,主要色调有深紫、豆绿两色,有金线、银线、平彩、花彩、石眼、红晕等石品,是制作砚台的上好材料。贺兰石分布于银川市西夏区小口子地区,东起贺兰山韭菜沟沟口、西至贺兰山黄旗口沟脑,北起贺兰山回回沟沟脑、南至贺兰山高沟子沟口。初步预测资源量为2450万吨,其中能够达到工艺要求的仅有250万吨,能加工成贺兰砚的不足30万吨。 

                                       

                                      贺兰砚源远流长,在《宁夏府志》“地理山川”一节里有这样的描叙:“笔架山在贺兰山小滚钟口,三峰矗立,宛如笔架,下出紫石可为砚,俗呼贺兰端。”随着银川古城的解放,贺兰砚经过推陈出新,不仅雕刻内容和形式有了新的飞跃,无论是“ 太白醉酒”、“赤壁怀古”、“松鹤延年”,还是“北斗七星”、“飞天乐伎”、“丹凤朝阳”……都栩栩如生,巧夺天工,显示了相当高的艺术造诣,陈列于北京人民大会堂中,成为贺兰石雕艺术的很大荣誉。 

                                       

                                      西夏区贺兰砚制作技艺有文字记载距今已有300年的历史。2011年6月,贺兰砚制作技艺被国务院批准、国家文化部确定为国家级非物质文化遗产名录,成为与端砚、歙砚、洮河砚、澄泥砚、易水砚跻身国家级非物质文化遗产代表作项目保护名录的六种名砚之一。 

                                       

                                      目前,西夏区约有贺兰砚、贺兰石制作、雕刻技艺公司、工作室30多家,其中,中国工艺美术大师1名,宁夏回族自治区工艺美术大师10名,非物质文化遗产各级传承人19人,涌现出了张向东、郝延强、仲生全、王辉为代表的一批领军人物。贺兰石制作、雕刻技艺带动创业就业千余人,主要分布在西夏古城、贺兰山农牧场、军马场,年产值3000~5000万元,占宁夏贺兰砚半壁江山。 

                                      HELANYANBULUNCONGYANSHIDEBENSHEN,HAISHIYANTAIDESHIYONG、GUANSHANG、SHOUZANGJIAZHIDENGDOUYOUZHECANLANDEFAZHANLISHIHESHENHOUDEWENHUADIYUN,SHIZHONGHUAWENHUADEYISHUGUIBAO。

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